Poisons Reference Guide

Consult the chart to determine the immediate home treatment while you telephone the vet.
If an emetic is suggested, this means getting the dog to vomit. This can be done by giving a nauseating solution, such as 1 teaspoon salt in a cup of warm water placed down the side of the mouth or using syrup of ipecac.  The dose of ipecac’ is 1-2 ml per kg of weight. Your vet can also give an injection to cause vomiting. Do not try to induce vomiting if petroleum distillates, acids or alkalis have been consumed or if the dog is depressed and not fully alert and conscious. Collect any suspected source material, such as any empty packets, or any loose pills, or any chemicals, solvents, pest control products, medicines, cleaners or sprays that the dog may have come in contact with. Take these with you to the vet. A sample of vomit may be useful for diagnosis. Do not give anything by mouth if the patient is convulsing, depressed or unconscious. Allow the dog to drink as much water as he wants.

Keep your medicines out of reach and in a locked cabinet.
Pay attention to all poisons such as garden chemicals, petroleum products, insecticides, detergents, scourers. Make certain they are out of reach, and cannot be knocked down. Never use old food or drink containers for poisons, confusion and accidental poisoning can occur very easily.
Source: Possible origin of product.

Signs: What the animal displays in their actions.

Immediate Home treatment: What to do immediately.

ADHESIVES
SOURCE: Glues and Pastes.
SIGNS: Discomfort in mouth, drooling, saliva, smacking lips.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Give milk (preferably or water)
COMMENTS: Not very attractive to dogs, but are potentially very toxic.
ALCOHOL (METHYLATED SPIRITS)
SOURCE: Alcoholic drinks, Industrial alcohol.
SIGNS: Depression, vomiting, collapse.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Bicarb. Soda in large quantities. Warmth, see your vet.
COMMENTS: Dogs may be induced to take large quantities of alcohol for “fun”,
such fun is often fatal.

ALKALI (Strong Bases)
SOURCE:Fluid cleaners, solvents, etc.
SIGNS:Abdominal pain. May be blood stained vomiting. Shock. Maybe mouth burns or ulcers.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Do not induce vomiting. Try neutralise by giving lots of water or preferably
dilute vinegar, lemon juice etc. On skin flush with vinegar. See Vet ASAP.

ANTIDEPRESSANTS
SOURCE: Valium
SIGNS: Depression, loss of consciousness. Coma, depends on dose.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Induce vomiting if still conscious. Take to vet ASAP.

ANTI-FREEZE (ethylene glycol)
SOURCE: Some antifreeze preparations.
SIGNS: There are two types of signs.
If a lot has been ingested, ‘acute’ poisoning occurs.
Otherwise, ‘chronic’ occurs the signs of which are due to kidney damage.
ACUTE: Initially apprehension (worried look), then dog sits about, staggering and vomiting.
Wobbling becomes worse and dog collapses. Back legs are paralysed, coma and death follow.
CHRONIC: (If dog survives for up to 24 hours). Signs vary, may include vomiting,
thirst and depression. Progresses to kidney failure and death.
IMM HOME TREATMENT:Immediate Vet treatment may save dogs with fatal doses.
If the dose is greater than 10mls per kilo body weight, there is no effective treatment
Intensive vet treatment is essential.
COMMENTS: Cats like the sweet taste as do some dogs.

ANT-KILLERS (see ‘Arsenic’ if it contains arsenic)
SOURCE: Most are fairly nontoxic. After shave lotion and perfume may contain a lot of alcohol but their powerful smell is unattractive to dogs
DETERGENTS
SIGNS: If it contains Chlordecone there are usually no signs.

ANTI BIOTICS    
SOURCE: Dispensed tablets for human or animal.
SIGN: Penicillin: Large numbers can cause vomiting and diarrhoea 6-12 hours later.
If dog is allergic, reaction can occur. Tetracycline: Vomiting and diarrhoea.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: If large numbers are taken induce vomiting.

ANTU
SOURCE: Rat Poison (odourless white Powder)
SIGNS: Immediate emetic. Preferably injection given by vet.
COMMENTS: Treatment is usually unsuccessful.

ARSENIC (not widely in products these days)
SOURCE:Some rodent poisons, paints, herbicides, ant poisons, insecticides.
SIGNS:Depending on dose, signs occur from hours to weeks after eating.
Death may occur within hours or may take weeks, or animal may survive.
Initially signs are vomiting, severe abdominal pain. Watery diarrhoea often with blood flecks.
Shock and collapse precede death.
IMM HOME TREATMENT:  Immediate emetic to induce vomiting. Vet ASAP.
COMMENTS: Samples of urine, faeces, vomit and any suspected source material should be kept and submitted
to vet for analysis.

ASPRIN
SOURCE: Can be toxic if large numbers are taken.
SIGNS:  Appetite loss, depression and vomiting which may be blood stained.
Convulsions, maybe death if large dose taken.
IMM HOME TREATMENT:Give emetic if large numbers ingested. See Vet
COMMENTS: Cats are very sensitive to this drug.

CARBON MONOXIDE
SOURCE: Car exhausts
SIGNS: Cheery Red Gums.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Place in fresh air, artificial respiration.
CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS
SOURCE: Flea Rinses,Benzene, Dieldrin, DDT,BHC absorbed through skin.
SIGNS: Initially excitement, twitching then muscle tremors, starts at the face.
Convulsions or seisures may develop, short but recur may be stimulated by handling.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: No specific antidote. Treatment aimed at reducing poison absorbed.
Tremors or convulsions take to vet ASAP. An emetic should be used if no tremors.
COMMENTS: Samples of vomit and faeces to vet if malicious poison suspected.

CHLORINE
SOURCE: Water sterilisers. Swimming pool water contains too low a concentration of chlorine to
cause acute poisoning.
SIGNS: If in eyes wash out, If swallowed, milk may ease discomfort.

COSMETICS
SIGNS; Vomiting and frothing or foaming at mouth. Diarrohea.
COMMENTS: Dogs are not attracted much, Low Toxicity.

GOLF BALL CENTRES
SOURCE: Golf Balls
SIGNS: Nil. Non Toxic
IMM HOME TREATMENT:
Irritates nose and throat, sneezing.g, salivating and drooling. May be vomiting

HEXACHLOROPHENE
SOURCE: Skin cremes etc, EG Phisohex
SIGNS: In young pup may cause brain damage. Signs dullness listlessness.
Theory is damage is temp, but permanent damage known to occur.

GLASS
SOURCE: Ground glass and/ or small glass chips do not seem to cause any damage.
Large pieces could cut the intestine and perforate the gut, but the author has never known a dog to eat any.
SIGNS: If large amount or large piece swallowed, do not induce vomiting.
Surgery may be neccessary- see vet.

KEROSENE (paraffin)
SOURCE: Heating and lighting fuel, cleaning fluids.
SIGNS: Abdominal Pain
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Give milk and vegetable oil.
Then purgative such as sodium sulphate (glauber salts 10 – 25g) To Vet.

LEAD   
SOURCE: Lead-based paints, primers (these are less common now but were very common,be aware of
of old painted objects), linoleum, batteries,. putty, some lubricants,
lead weights (sinkers, curtain. weights etc.)” sOlder, some pipes.(Note: ‘Lead’ pencils do not contain lead).
SIGNS: Lead poisoning can be fatal if untreated.
First the dog gets gut signs, then nervous signs. Gut signs:
(in about 9 out of 1 0 dogs poisoned by lead), abdominal pain. Vomiting. Appetite loss.
Nervous signs: these signs follow the gut signs. They vary from dog to dog,
so do not expect all of them – dog looks worried, even hysterical.
Nervousness, whining. Dislike of light (photophobia). Incoordination and staggering. Eventual paralysis.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Treatment is usually effective if started early.
Your vet will probably need to do blood tests to confirm the diagnosis as the signs
are not specific for lead poisoning.
Induce vomiting if substances containing lead have been eaten within previous half hour.
COMMENTS: Usually happens to young dogs due to their youthful appetite and curiosity.
Chronic, slow build up of poisonous levels can occur.

MATCH HEADS (Note: Striking surface contains red phosphorus which is nontoxic).
SIGNS:Contains potassium chlorate. Causes stomach irritation and vomiting if enough are eaten. Pups usually chew the wood rather than eat the ends.

METALDEHYDE
SOURCE: Slug and snail poisons.
SIGNS: Incoordination and  muscle tremors, twitching, convulsions, continuous salivation.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Get to a vet ASAP.  Induce vomiting ASAP. If treatment is commenced
soon enough, the outlook is reasonable.
METHALATED SPIRITS: SEE ALCOHOL

ORGANPHOSPHATE CARBAMATE
SOURCE: Insecticides – skin, mouth or lungs. Some wormers.
SIGNS:  Muscle tremors and twitching. Profuse drooling.Often dog will urinate, pass faeces.
Difficulty in breathing, eventually paralysis of the breathing muscles and death.
Sometimes paralysis of the hind legs.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: None; Take to Vet ASAP, wash off excess poison with water or soap and cold water.

PARACETAMOL
SOURCE:Type of pain killer.
SIGNS: After a few days liver damage may occur and signs include yellow membranes, vomiting,
diarrhoea, restlessness, depression, abdominal pain.

PHENOL (CARBOLIC ACID)
SOURCE:  Some disinfectants,fungicides, wood preservatives, some photographic developers
(can be absorbed through skin).
SIGNS: Staggering, twitiching. Depression leading to coma.  Muscle twitching can be severe.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Give milk, egg and/ or oil. Then purge. Wash off any excess phenol (use Metho)
COMMENTS: Never use disinfectants   on dogs unless the label allows, is so follow instructions carefully.

STRYCHNINE
SOURCE: Pesticides.
SIGNS: Apprehension,tense and stiff limbs, progressing to violent seizures or convulsions.
Seisures last from a few seconds to minutes.
Convulsions become more frequent  and death occurs 1 -2 hours later.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Induce vomiting and get to Vet ASAP.
COMMENTS: Any suspected source matter should be collected. Strychnine is one of common agents used by
malicious poisoners.

TOBACCO
SOURCE: Cigarettes
SIGNS: Vomiting due to irritation.
IMM HOME TREATMENT: Charcoal Tablets
COMMENTS: If vomiting severe consult vet.

WARFARIN (RATSAC)
SOURCE: Rat and mice poison.
SIGNS: Is a blood anticoagulant(stops  blood clotting)
therefore signs are related to bleeding and vary according to site of bleeding.
Sometimes the dog has difficulty breathing and may have blood in faeces.
Heart rate is fast and weak


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